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Narcotic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the drug classification. For the scuba diving reference, see Nitrogen narcosis. For the sedative agent, see Sedative. For pain control medications of both narcotic and non-narcotic varieties, see Analgesic. For other uses, see Narcotic (disambiguation).



Heroin, a powerful opioid and narcotic.

The term narcotic (/n?:r'k?t?k/, from ancient Greek ????? nark?, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties. In the United States, it has since become associated with opiates and opioids, commonly morphine and heroin, as well as derivatives of many of the compounds found within raw opium latex. The primary three are morphine, codeine, and thebaine (while thebaine itself is only very mildly psychoactive, it is a crucial precursor in the vast majority of semi-synthetic opioids, such as hydrocodone). Legally speaking, the term "narcotic" is imprecisely defined and typically has negative connotations.[1][2] When used in a legal context in the U.S., a narcotic drug is simply one that is totally prohibited, or one that is used in violation of governmental regulation, such as heroin or cannabis.

In the medical community, the term is more precisely defined and generally does not carry the same negative connotations.[3][4][5]

Statutory classification of a drug as a narcotic often increases the penalties for violation of drug control statutes. For example, although federal law classifies both cocaine and amphetamines as "Schedule II" drugs, the penalty for possession of cocaine is greater than the penalty for possession of amphetamines because cocaine, unlike amphetamines, is classified as a narcotic.[6]

Contents

1 United Nations

1.1 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961

1.2 INCB Yellow List

2 World Health Organization

2.1 Studies on the definition of counterfeit medicines in WHO member states

2.2 Methadone Information Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization

3 United States

3.1 US v. Stieren

4 History

5 Analgesics

6 See also

7 References

8 External links

United Nations

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961

The adoption of this Convention is regarded as a milestone in the history Methadone Drug of international drug control. The Single Convention codified all existing multilateral treaties on drug control and extended the existing control systems to include the cultivation of plants that were grown as the raw material of narcotic drugs. The principal objectives of the Convention are to limit the possession, use, trade, distribution, import, export, manufacture and production of drugs exclusively to medical and scientific purposes and to address drug trafficking through international cooperation to deter and discourage drug traffickers. The Convention also established the International Narcotics Control Board, merging the Permanent Central Board and the Drug Supervisory Board.[7]

The 1961 Convention exercises control over more than 116 narcotic drugs. They include mainly plant-based products such as opium and its derivatives morphine, codeine and heroin, but also synthetic narcotics such as methadone and pethidine, as well as cannabis, coca and cocaine. The Convention divides drugs into four groups, or schedules, in order to enforce a greater or lesser degree of control for the various substances and compounds. Opium smoking and eating, coca leaf chewing, cannabis resin smoking and the non-medical use of cannabis are prohibited. The 1972 Protocol to this Convention calls for increased efforts to prevent illicit production of, traffic in and use of narcotics. It also highlights the need to provide treatment and rehabilitation services to drug abusers.[8]

INCB Yellow List



This document contains the current list of narcotic drugs under international control and additional information to assist governments in filling in the International Narcotics Control Board questionnaires related to narcotic drugs, namely, form A, form B and form C.[9]

In medicine, a chemical agent that induces stupor, coma, or insensibility to pain (also called narcotic analgesic).

In the context of international drug control, "narcotic drug" means any drug defined as such under the 1961 Convention.[10]

World Health Organization

Studies on the definition of counterfeit medicines in WHO member states

4. Assessment of the definitions of counterfeit medicines (or equivalent) in Member States



4.2 The nature of legal definitions: the unambiguity requirement

In order to avoid room for difference in interpretation, law-makers (codificators) sometimes deviate from etymological (definiendum plus definientia) definitions. In doing so, they approach the term from the law enforcement point of view. The best example is the definition Treatment For Substance of narcotics in the United Nations Conventions. Narcotics are substances and preparations that induce drowsiness, sleep, stupor, insensibility, etc., and that these effects (and their rate) are complicated to prove, e.g. during litigation. Thus, the legal definition of a narcotic is whether or not it is listed on the Schedules of the Convention. If it is on some of the Schedules, it is narcotic.[11]

Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization

The term usually refers to opiates or opioids, which are called narcotic analgesics. In common parlance and legal usage, it is often used imprecisely to mean illicit drugs, irrespective of their pharmacology. For example, narcotics control legislation in Canada, USA, and certain other countries includes cocaine and cannabis as well as opioids (see also conventions, international drug). Because of this variation in usage, the term is best replaced by one with a more specific meaning (e.g. opioid).[12]

United States

Section 1300.01 Definitions relating to controlled substances:



(b) As used in parts 1301 through 1308 and part 1312 of this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings specified:

(30) The term narcotic drug means any of the following whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin or independently by means of chemical synthesis or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

(i) Opium, opiates, derivatives of opium and opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation. Such term does not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.

(ii) Poppy straw and concentrate of poppy straw.

(iii) Coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed.

(iv) Cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers.

(v) Ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers and salts of isomers.

(vi) Any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in paragraphs (b)(31)(i) through (v) of this section.[13]



A 1984 amendment to 21 USC (Controlled Substances Act), Section 802 expanded and revised definition of "narcotic drug", including within term poppy straw, cocaine, and ecgonine.[14]

US v. Stieren

608 F.2d 1135

United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit. Decided Oct. 31, 1979. LAY, Circuit Judge.

John Arthur Stieren appeals from the judgment of conviction for possession of cocaine with intent to distribute and dispense under 21 U.S.C. § 841(a)(1). Stieren contends that the statute is unconstitutional because "cocaine is classified as a narcotic under Schedule II of 21 U.S.C. § 812(c), when as a matter of scientific and medical fact cocaine is not a narcotic but is a non-narcotic stimulant."

The sufficiency of the evidence is not disputed. Stieren was convicted after special agents testified that he was in possession of and attempted to sell them a large quantity of cocaine. Defendant urges that the testimony and reports by physicians and scientists demonstrate that cocaine is not a narcotic. He also cites Opioid Treatment cases which hold that cocaine is not a narcotic under the pharmacological definition of the term. State v. Erickson, 574 P.2d 1 (Alaska 1978).

It is within the legislative prerogative to classify cocaine, which is a non-narcotic central nervous system stimulant, as a narcotic for penalty and regulatory purposes. 21 U.S.C. § 802(16)(A). The use of cocaine poses serious problems for the community and has a high potential for abuse. Congress' choice of penalty reflects a societal policy which must be adhered to by the courts.2 Congress has the power to reclassify cocaine. This power has been delegated to the Attorney General. 21 U.S.C. § 811(a)(1). If cocaine is to be reclassified, defendant's arguments should be made to the legislative branch, not the courts.

We hold that Congress had a rational legislative purpose when it classified cocaine as a Schedule II narcotic drug for the purpose of imposing penalties.

JUDGMENT AFFIRMED.[15]

History

The term "narcotic" is believed to have been coined by the Greek physician Galen to refer to agents that numb or deaden, causing loss of feeling or paralysis. It is based on the Greek word ???????? (narcosis), the term used by Hippocrates for the process of numbing or the numbed state. Galen listed mandrake root, altercus (eclata),[16] seeds, and poppy juice (opium) as the chief examples.[17][18] It originally referred to any substance that relieved pain, dulled the senses, or induced sleep.[19] Now, the term is used in a number of ways. Some people define narcotics as substances that bind at opioid receptors (cellular membrane proteins activated by substances like heroin or morphine) while others refer to any illicit substance as a narcotic. From a U.S. legal perspective, narcotics refer to opium, opium derivatives, and their semi-synthetic substitutes,[20] though in U.S. law, due to its numbing properties, cocaine is also considered a narcotic.

Sense of "any illegal drug" first recorded 1926, Amer.Eng. The adj. is first attested c.1600.[21]

Analgesics

Analgesics are drugs that relieve pain. There are two main types: non-narcotic analgesics for mild pain, and narcotic analgesics for severe pain.[22]

See also

Opioid

Opiate comparison

Narcotics Anonymous

Narcoterrorism

Prohibition of drugs

References

^ Julien, Robert M. A Primer of Drug Action. 11th edition. Claire D. Advokat, Joseph E. Comaty, eds. New York: Worth Publishers: 2008. page 537.

^ Mangione MP, Matoka M: Improving Pain Management Communication. How Patients Understand the terms "Opioid" and "Narcotic." Journal of General Internal Medicine 2008; vol 23:9 1336-1338.

^ NIH.gov Retrieved November 10, 2015

^ Oxford Dictionaries (note definition 1.1 (medicine))  Retrieved November 10, 2015

^ Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Retrieved November 10, 2015

^ Carl B. Schultz (1983). "NOTE AND COMMENT: Statutory Classification of Cocaine as a Narcotic: An Illogical Anachronism". 9 Am. J. L. and Med. 225.

^ Convention 1961. Incb.org. Retrieved on 2011-09-24.

^ Illicit Drugs - Drug Definitions. UNODC. Retrieved on 2011-09-24.

^ LIST OF NARCOTIC DRUGS UNDER INTERNATIONAL CONTROL. Yellow List. International Narcotics Control Board. 49th edition, December 2010

^ TERMINOLOGY AND INFORMATION ON DRUGS. (PDF) . Second edition. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2003. Retrieved on 2011-09-24.

^ PRELIMINARY DRAFT SURVEY ON NATIONAL LEGISLATION ON "COUNTERFEIT MEDICINES". (PDF) . World Health Organization. 4 May 2010. Retrieved on 2011-09-24.

^ WHO | Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization. Who.int (2010-12-09). Retrieved on 2011-09-24.

^ Title 21 CFR, Part 1300-1399. US Department of Justice. Drug Enforcement Administration. April 1, 2010

^ Title 21 United States Code (USC) Controlled Substances Act. Section 802. Definitions. US Department of Justice. Drug Enforcement Administration

^ 608 F.2d 1135. Bulk.resource.org. Retrieved on 2011-09-24.

^ J. Richard Stracke (1974). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Rodopi.

^ Francis Edmund Anstie (1865). Stimulants and Narcotics: their mutual relations.

^ "De Furore, cap VI" (in Latin).

^ Julien, Robert M. See A Primer of Drug Action full citation above.

^ Narcotics Drug Addiction Help Rehabilitation Recovery Resource. Drug-rehab-referral.org. Retrieved on 2011-09-24.

^ Online Etymology Dictionary. Etymonline.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-24.

^ General Drug Categories. Fda.gov (2009-08-11). Retrieved on 2011-09-24.

External links

Pharmer.org A non-profit site providing detailed descriptions of most narcotic analgesics

List of controlled substances, some of which are classified as "narcotics," in the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Not all of the classified ones are chemically narcotic, as described on the top of this page



Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Narcotic&oldid=719748360"
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Fri

27

May

2016

Addiction, drunk driving and the opiate crisis on the North Shore

The media continues to present a shocked response to the ongoing challenges of Cassandra Miller-Brown. Ms. Miller-Brown Methadone Withdrawal is the woman in Gloucester's Angel Program who has relapsed numerous times, including once when a judge released her to what he thought was a treatment program where she would stay. One of the problems with addiction is that despite many types of support and treatment available, addictive thinking repeatedly drives an addict to reject all of it and seek drugs. Ms. Miller-Brown's name and picture is now in the newspaper as she struggles with her addiction. The tone of the newspaper articles are that her lapses make no sense in the face of the treatment offered. Unfortunately, her relapses make perfect sense. Consistent drug use causes changes in the brain that effect judgement and thinking. Ms. Miller-Brown has not yet been able to remain drug free long enough for her cognitive abilities to return to normal. This is typical of addiction and comes as no surprise to addicts, their families and friends and treatment Addiction Treatment professionals involved with them. Addiction is referred to as "a disease of relapse". Repeated drug use is expected and must be planned for as part of an addict's overall recovery.





Drunk driving again makes the headlines on the North Shore as a college student involved in a fatal drunk driving crash contemplates the loss of his best friend. Joseph Castano, visiting his friend at Endicott College in Beverly was at the wheel of his car when it hit a utility pole early Saturday morning. Craig Sampson, described as his best friend, died from his injuries and Joseph was badly injured. At the hospital Castano was found to have a blood alcohol level of .22, almost three times the legal limit of .08.

A Lynn man found with 27 bags of heroin in his stomach last month is being held on $500,000 bail. He was discovered when one of the bags ruptured Opioid Treatment and he was treated at a local hospital for a drug overdose. A source in the DEA explains that often, these "mules" are approached by drug dealers while visiting family in South America. It is not unusual for this person to have no prior involvement with drugs but are given no choice. They are told: "Carry Treatment Of Opioid Dependence these packages to the United States or your family will be in danger". Although this arrest has removed a supply of heroin from the street, it results in one more victim of the drug crisis.
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Food and Cooking | HubPages

Food for thought is a saying, but what marketing agencies in st louis is more thought-about than food? Its a passion what we eat, where to eat, what to cook, how to cook, plus all the associated topics such as diet and nutrition, cookware and kitchen equipment, dishes, party ideas, cooking techniques, farming, and food shopping. We own cookbooks, but we want to know about others favorites. We have recipes we have mastered, but are always looking to collect others favorites and try out new ones. Theres the million little secrets, hints, and tips St Louis that make these projects so challenging and fun. But we are also a society of diners, partaking more and more of foods prepared in markets, delis, specialty shops, and restaurants. Information on whats healthy and whats not is a fascination we witness on a daily basis. Todays generation of Missouri eaters want as much information and expertise as they can get and welcome chances to try out many new ingredients, dishes, and techniques. We also want ease and simplicity because our time is a commodity.

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Major Advice To Obtain Your Individual Finances On The Right Track





Without a sound comprehension of managing one's personal finances, it can be difficult making it in one paycheck to another. Fortunately, there are numerous things you can do to ensure that your spending and saving decisions are handled responsibly. This informative article offers a number of ideas and inspiration that will help you deal with money matters.

Never use a credit card for money advances. The monthly interest with a cash advance can be almost double the monthly interest on the purchase. The interest on cash advances is likewise calculated from the time you withdrawal the money, so you will still be charged some interest even if you be worthwhile your charge card completely at the end of the month.

Thrift shopping and consignment shopping have grown to be more popular in the current economy. Try buying your clothes, decor in your home, and kitchen items used. You save a lot of money on the things you need to buy anyway that you could then put towards your savings or retirement accounts.

Bonds are a very stable and solid investment that one could make if you wish to plan for future years. These sorts of investments are purchased at a small part of what they are worth in the future. Invest in bonds if you would like earn a great payback down the road upon maturity.

Pay back your items using the higher interest before concentrating on the reduced or no interest debt. Make payment on minimums with a high interest card may cost you several hundred dollars more than it must. List out of the interest rates of all cards you possess and repay the very best ones at the earliest opportunity.

Produce a plan to repay any debt that is certainly accruing as fast as possible. For around half time that your student education loans or mortgage in is repayment, you happen to be payment only or mostly the interest. The earlier you pay it off, the less you will pay in the long run, and better your long-term finances will be.

If one would like to get the most from their own personal finances they need to be thrifty using their money. By looking to find the best deals, or perhaps a way for one to save or earn money, an individual may often be taking advantage of their finances. Being mindful of one's spending can keep them in control of their finances.

Your cellular phone is an expense that will vary, according to the frequency of usage. If you can find applications or programs that you just do not use on the phone, cut these out immediately. Payments for services you are not making use of, needs to be eliminated as soon as possible to reduce spending.

While you are taking out money, one important thing you need to avoid is withdrawing coming from a different bank than your own. Each withdrawal costs between two to four dollars and might add up over time. Adhere to the bank of your choice if you would like minimize your miscellaneous expenses.

An excellent start to generating a plan for yourself is always to keep a daily log of your spending. Make a note of all you spend money on, whether it's a few dollars for lunch or perhaps a car payment. This will help you see where your money is going. Sometimes we don't realize just how much the small dollar amounts mount up until we percieve it before us.



Filing bankruptcy needs to be your last resort while confronting personal financial concerns that have gone away from whack. First explore other stuff like debt consolidation before you make an attempt to throw the hands inside the air and quit paying altogether. Honor your commitments until you absolutely cannot.

How could you boost your finances? Possessing a bank account is essential. The best way to try this is to pay you first - before some other bill is paid. Understandably, occasionally in life when it's challenging to save however, just putting $25 a paycheck aside for savings will prove to add-up after a while.

Will not, whenever possible, spend more money money than you make. Obviously, situations arise, and it is sometimes alright to borrow money. However, you should live below your means. Sacrifice a bit now, and then you will reap greater benefits than you can think of.

Don't allow the economy enable you to get down! Fight back by using a arrange for your own personal finances, debts, and future endeavors. The tips above can help you on the personal journey to a good financial situation. Once you are set up using a financial plan for the current, start planning in the future in order to avoid the anxiety of last minutes scrambling to pay for debts.

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